IPCHAIN DATABASE ALLOWS YOU TO SAFELY SHARE AND TRANSFER IP RIGHTS

Researchers, artists and companies alike need to protect their intellectual property. This can become highly difficult if such information has to be shared prior to obtaining the corresponding IP rights. IPCHAIN Database has therefore developed a set of tools to make the sharing of sensitive information much easier and more secure.

“To easily, quickly and safely share confidential information is essential for scientists but also for companies, who need to protect their many trade-secrets.”, explains Ingrid Kelly Spillmann, who, as Technology Transfer Manager at University of Vienna, is responsible for the management of the University’s patent portfolio, marketing University technologies to industry and licensing University technologies. Blockchain technology has been identified as a potential game changer for intellectual property by experts in this field and the recent article “Blockchain and IP law: a match made in crypto heaven” in the official World Intellectual Property Organization’s magazine demonstrated a number of possible use cases.

IPCHAIN Database (www.ipchaindatabase.com) is based on decentralized Blockchain technology which represents an incorruptible digital ledger. Its Blockchain based architecture ensures indisputable proof of authorship as all stored information exists as a shared database hosted by potentially millions of computers. This makes information publicly accessible and easily verifiable, without the risk of a centralized version of this information being hacked or otherwise corrupted. Blockchain technology thus offers the easiest and most secure way of establishing proof of authorship via online publication but can also be used to allow for the storing of confidential information and the subsequent safe sharing of that information.

By securely and privately storing confidential information on IPCHAIN Database, the innovator will be able to quickly select, adapt and use non-disclosure agreements (NDA) for the safe sharing of information. The other party will only be able to access this information upon signing the NDA, with proof of signature and the time-stamped document being permanently stored on the Blockchain. The NDA is a legally binding contract that outlines the information both parties wish to share, and serves as proof of the parties’ agreement to not disclose the non-public information. IPCHAIN Database will thus make the sharing of information faster, safer and easier and will support collaboration in scientific, artistic or business contexts.

IPCHAIN Database will further this system to also make the transfer of intellectual property faster and easier for both sellers and buyers. While the holder of rights to digital assets may have been difficult to prove in the past, IPCHAIN Database’s Blockchain technology means that sales contracts between parties will now be completely transparent and much easier to prove. In addition to the mere documentation of such transfers, IPCHAIN Database will also make certain that the actual transfer depends on the receipt of the stipulated price, thereby increasing the safety of both parties, and ensuring that innovators can monetize their work more effectively.

For more information on better protecting your innovations please visit www.ipchaindatabase.com

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Automation and Control Technology Innovator Robotina Starts ICO Presale, Looks to be a Gamechanger in Energy Management

Robotina, a Slovenian company dedicated to the development of smart technologies for the energy industry, has recently started their ICO presale campaign with the goal of revolutionizing the traditional power network. The company has almost three decades of experience in the global market, and their new energy management solution is a state-of-the-art combination of three groundbreaking technologies viz. Internet of Things (IoT), artificial intelligence (AI), and blockchain.

Kozina, Slovenia (EU) March 2, 2018

In their relentless efforts to improve the efficiency, service quality, and user engagement of the traditional power network systems, Robotina has recently started an ICO presale campaign. With a track record of demonstrating excellence in the field of energy management for twenty-eight long years, the company is all set to implement a collaborative sharing economy business model that will bring numerous benefits to the participating users by utilizing artificial intelligence, machine learning, patented multi objective optimization and blockchain technology.

Indiscriminate use of electricity around the world has now reached a perilous stage that can only be overcome by substantial investments in new infrastructure and smarter use of the existing ones. This is exactly what Robotina is looking to achieve with their innovative platform.  It will be a vertical, high-tech all-inclusive enabling solution, consisting of connected Internet of Things (IoT) elements (things, processes, data, people) and the Power Platform (PP).  The platform and connected IoT will be capable of executing thousands of calculations per second, each resulting in a small benefit and a small slice of revenue. Robotina’s vision is to create a community where members collaborate in order to save and earn money while consuming electrical energy.

Since the company’s inception in 1990, Robotina has carved a niche for itself in the industry, with own products, patents, international certifications, two R&D teams, one approved institute, and a high-calibre team comprising of fifty noted experts. They have already developed more than one hundred products that have been delivered to over thirty countries around the world.  The company has partnered with several reputable companies, including Microsoft, Hitachi, Panasonic, SHARP and others. Today, Robotina has direct or indirect presence in the markets of Slovenia, Austria, Germany, Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark, Sweden, Lithuania, Russian Federation, Ukraine, Turkey, India, China, Brazil and many others.

At a stage when the world of technology is going through dramatic changes, Robotina is focused on using technology to make this world a better place to live in. Unlike hundreds of ICOs released almost every day, Robotina has an extraordinary track record in the industry and has invested substantially to make their ICO a success. As a long term industry player, their goal is to provide financial benefits to investors and platform users and help contribute to a greener environment.

“After implementing 1000+ successful projects in Germany, Austria, Slovenia, Switzerland, South Africa and elsewhere, it was time to upgrade our game and give our clients a better, even safer decentralized solution,” says Devid Palcic, the CEO of Robotina. “This development is completely in line with our vision to become the leading provider of smart connected solutions, components and platforms which will contribute to a new model of connected society. We are looking forward to bringing the measurable benefits our ICO investors will be seeing.”

The Home Energy Management System or HEMS is an integral component of the Robotina ICO.  Priced at $299, this device will connect the homes of the users to Robotina’s IoT platform. During a period of ninety days after the end of the ICO, the first 2,000 backers to claim HEMS will get a 100% discount, and the next 198,000 backers to claim HEMS will get a 50% discount.

Robotina’s ICO presale started on February 21, offering investors an opportunity to buy the Robotina platform utility token (ROX) with a 10% bonus. The presale hard cap is $15.5 M and the ration ETH/ROX will be calculated for each phase (presale, crowdsale) separately. Though the platform payment with several other tokens, coins or fiat currencies, lucrative special discounts are available only on ROX transactions.

Robotina has always invested generously in product development and research. They have recently put together a lot of effort and funds into creating a community that will help increase the adoption of their platform. The company’s current focus is on making the ICO successful and paving the way for its implementation.

To find out more, please visit https://www.robotinaico.com/

About Robotina: Robotina is a Slovenian company, incorporated in 1990 and focused on innovation in automation and control technology. The company’s Internet of Things (IoT) enabled hardware (HW), cloud software (SW) and various solutions have demonstrated their excellence in the industry. Robotina has its own in house R&D and manufacturing facility for all its products. This manufacturing facility enables Robotina to deliver top quality at very competitive prices.

Contact: Tomaz Pavlica

Website: https://www.robotinaico.com/

Email: support@robotinaico.com

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Blockchain Powered 3D and VR Open Source Platform MARK.SPACE Announces the Launch of CRYPTO.VALLEY Virtual City

MARK.SPACE, a blockchain powered ecosystem for the creation of all types of VR/3D projects, has just launched their new virtual infrastructure project called CRYPTO.VALLEY.  The creators claim that this new project will be a comprehensive and distinctive 3D and VR-compatible virtual city that will serve as an interactive hub of information for the crypto enthusiasts.

24th February, 2018

MARK.SPACE is delighted to announce the mega launch of CRYPTO.VALLEY, a new virtual infrastructure project that promises to be a cynosure of the global crypto community as an interactive and informational pool. In its fully functional form, CRYPTO.VALLEY will be a virtual city completely compatible with the 3D and VR technologies.

MARK.SPACE was unveiled recently as a 3D and VR open source platform, leveraging the power of blockchain technology to deliver a user-friendly tool for the creation and implementation of all types of VR/3D projects. All projects on this unique ecosystem can be accessed through any web-browser, and without using any specialized VR equipment. Moreover, unlike all existing VR platforms, the virtual spaces on this platform can be visited without paying any membership fees. Most importantly, there is no need for the users to understand even the basics of programming to create VR-compatible web-spaces.

With its four thematic districts, viz. shopping, business, residential, and community, MARK.SPACE creates an opportunity for the users to visit virtualized copies of actual locations such as apartments, offices, fan clubs, and fashion boutiques. Business owners and freelancers will be able to utilize this platform to generate an income stream and turn virtual services into sold goods.

The CRYPTO.VALLEY project will be a key component of the MARK.SPACE ecosystem, offering a virtually rendered platform for socioeconomic interactions. There is a high likelihood that this platform will be of much interest to all the key players of the global crypto community including the blockchain developers, crypto-exchanges, foundations and associations, protocols, mining equipment manufacturers, advisors and experts, crypto-bloggers, and gadget showrooms. The MARK.SPACE team is confident that their latest venture will immensely benefit the crypto or blockchain projects, crypto-banks, VCs, crypto funds, and all other crypto enthusiasts.

The MARK.SPACE team, for the ease of understanding, refers to CRYPTO.VALLEY as a “3D and VR-compatible Reddit, BitcoinTalk, KickStarter or Crypto Wikipedia.” The team informs that this platform is intended to help users accumulate advertising traffic and serve as a platform for expertise. The former is particularly important as this will open up a completely new paradigm in terms of audience loyalty and customer satisfaction.

“We believe that the virtual city will soon become the central visual point and reputational playground for crypto businesses and individuals: an opportunity for projects to present themselves in 3D and/or VR format,” said a senior member of the MARK.SPACE team.

MARK.SPACE has just started accepting applications for admission to their just launched Valley community. Interested parties can send in their applications by visiting the new landing page of the project at Crypto-valley.io.

Starting from April, 2018, MARK.SPACE will start the allocation of virtual properties and addresses alongside other districts as per the company’s development roadmap.

To find out more about MARK.SPACE, please visit https://mark.space/

About MARK.SPACE:
MARK.SPACE is a new generation of the Internet: compatible websites that, on the one hand are independent (since they have their own domain) and on the other are united by a common transaction and accounting system on the Blockchain and a global search engine. In addition, any user can visit and even have his own the 3D / VR / AR (virtual reality / augmented reality) space inside the universe MARK.SPACE for free.
Contact: Utushkin Vladislav, CMO MARK.SPACE

Website: http://mark.space/

Email: marketing@mark.space

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AltairVR ICO: Business or Social Mission?

Konstantin Urvantsev, CEO and founder.

The 20th century was the century of humankind’s technological breakthroughs, thanks to public education and the subsequent industrial boom. Fundamental changes took place in medicine, transportation, leisure, and nearly all domains of humankind’s activity. Humans even went beyond the limits of the Earth and went to space. Now, in the early 21st century, humankind has entered a period where the rate of accumulation of knowledge and technology has exploded. The world has been rapidly changing before our very eyes, within the span of literally a single generation. New technology appears and becomes outdated in just a few years. Unbeknownst to us, we are now constantly living through small technology revolutions. This is the air we breathe.

This rapidly changing world has already placed demands on humankind: we have to manage to live in harmony with this vast volume of knowledge and technology, so as not to become aliens on our own planet. We need new ways of mastering the huge volume of knowledge, flexible, fast, understandable ways. The educational system we grew up with, with its textbooks and lectures, has unfortunately failed to keep up with our world’s rapid pace of development. This is why we are currently undergoing a revolution in education as well: education is moving online and becoming generally accessible. Nonetheless, in its methods education remains archaic, with the same lectures, textbooks, and homework. This is a very slow path to knowledge, often requiring abstract thinking, which often takes time to develop. Of course, it was this method of education that brought humankind to its current successes, but it has worn itself out, and we need new technology, just as in other domains.

A huge leap forward in attaining a qualitative change in educational methods and approaches has been provided by visualization technology. Virtual reality (VR) makes it possible to simply and directly show the most complex processes, which previously required a certain level of abstract thinking and numerous verbal descriptions and examples, such as the big bang theory, electricity, or blood circulation in living creatures. Now, in just a few minutes a VR video gives a detailed and vivid show of how everything looks and functions. The time to study, understand, and master a variety of topics has now radically decreased, freeing it up for new knowledge. Meanwhile, involving emotion through vivid visualizations has significantly improved absorption of the information received, even when it is quite complex. Now, children can obtain more knowledge in a more organic way, much earlier and in greater volumes than previous generations. At the same time, adults can fill in gaps in their knowledge as needed or as desired.

Under current circumstances, when humankind’s knowledge base is expanding at an astounding rate and fundamentally altering the world, making it accessible and easy to learn becomes incredibly important. The development of as amazing a project as Wikipedia serves only as confirmation of this. People need information on all sorts of subjects concerning the world around them, presented in an accessible and understandable way. Our experience with educational virtual reality projects (we have educated over half a million children in Russia) also shows that information that is presented vividly and understandably is not only easily and organically absorbed, but also inspires children to pursue knowledge further, to self-teach and self-develop. We think this is extremely important in today’s world. It is these experiences and observations on current trends in informational online projects that got us thinking about creating a global VR encyclopedia, a global library of human knowledge presented as VR videos.

Of course, this undertaking is extremely ambitious, and beyond the reach of a small team of developers. This is why we decided to develop a VR library platform, where each user can bring in their knowledge, packaged as an educational video using VR technology. We think the possibilities are endless: virtual tours to far-off corners of our planet, to space, to far-off historical eras, into mechanisms and bodies. All the knowledge accumulated by humankind in all sorts of subjects will be collected in one place, presented in today’s most progressive format, and made available to no more and no less than every person on the planet. The opportunities for integration with major scientific, research, and educational centers, as well as with passionate amateurs, are huge: they can be both content producers and consumers. Furthermore, we are certain that the future of education, of educational processes is in this new format of transferring knowledge.

Clearly, to develop so ambitious a project, we need to attract kindred spirits. This is why we are conducting an ICO for our project. I am certain that the funds we raise and the support of those who believe in our world’s amazing future will, in the very near future, put our project in the ranks of those changing the world as we speak.

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Artificial intelligence & Blockchain in Medicine will save Millions of People from Mistaken Diagnoses

Skychain Global Looks to Save Millions of People from Mistaken Diagnoses Utilizing Artificial intelligence & Blockchain

Skychain Global, for the first time in Russia, has successfully conducted a test of the artificial intelligence system for medical diagnostics, comparing the number of errors committed by the living doctors. This infrastructure blockchain project is aimed at helping doctors and patients have accurate diagnoses.

24th February, 2018

Skychain Global is pleased to reveal that they have just concluded a test of their artificial intelligence system by comparing the number of errors committed by the living doctors while carrying out medical diagnostics. Interestingly, this is the first ever test of its kind to be conducted in Russia. An infrastructure blockchain project, Skychain is dedicated to providing an infrastructure to radically increase the efficiency of healthcare AI development and training.

There is no denying the fact that the field of medical sciences have experienced significant progress over the years. However, human beings are not perfect, and hence, are prone to errors. Unfortunately, just like many years ago, doctors still make mistakes in medical diagnosis. Recent statistical figures suggest that medical errors are the third most common cause of death in the US, after old age and oncology. As an example, it has been argued that doctors fail to diagnose 70% of lung cancer of the first stage on a radiograph.

Experts suggest that the groundbreaking AI technology can help detect a very high percentage of cases that even the best of human doctors fail to diagnose. Skychain Global is in the process of developing a platform on the blockbuster that promises to drastically increase the efficiency and accuracy of artificial intelligence in medicine, by securely uniting all participants in the process of building computer intelligence. The core idea of ​​Skychain is to unite a single smart contract between the owners of big-data in the field of medicine, AI developers and consumers.

Skychain was founded by a successful businessman in the field of IT, with support from experts in the field of artificial intelligence and healthcare partners across the globe. The project team has already developed a prototype system and published its source code on GitHub. On February 20, the prototype system was tested in diagnostics. A few neural networks hosted on Skychain diagnosed melanoma, breast cancer, and heart diseases more accurately compared to the human doctors.

A short video of the event is available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NeqnhaghfrI

Interestingly, the system was found to deliver wrong results for 4% to 14% of cases, compared to 18% to 32% of cases diagnosed wrongly by the doctors. Moreover, Skychain spent an average of 0.1 seconds for each diagnosis, while the doctors required around 20-30 seconds. The findings of the test clearly indicate that the advent of artificial intelligence in medicine will save the lives of millions of people every year.

The testing of the Skychain Global system was carried out under the active participation of several top notch doctors, medical professionals, and healthcare professionals.

“Your developments are very relevant; they will be primarily useful for screening,” said Volgin Valeriy Nikolaevich, Doctor of Medical Sciences, professor, and dermatologist.

“A modern, unique project, which has no analogues in practical medicine. The project provides a preliminary assessment of the pathological process in different branches of medicine with artificial intelligence,” feels Ovsyannikova Maria Romanovna, a renowned doctor, pathologist, oncomorphologist, and forensic medical expert. “This function can be used by both patients and practitioners. The development of such technologies is necessary and inevitable in modern medicine.”

Another top notch doctor and anaesthesiology, resuscitation, and ECG diagnostics expert Golikov Maxim Alekseevich said, “At a minimum, similar studies involving artificial intelligence are ancillary support for the doctor. The program issues a decision that can draw the doctor’s attention, and perhaps make a different decision.”

Highlighting her experience of participating in the trial, noted dermatologist Sadovskaya Maria Valeryevna said, “The competition of doctors with artificial intelligence is quite a new thing for us. For me, the assignment was not difficult, but very useful. It was nice that dermatologists responded best and at the end I just lost 2 points to artificial intelligence.”

In its initial stage, Skychain Global is focused solely on medical diagnostics with the help of AI at the level of the doctors.  However, the accumulation of medical big-data in a single ecosystem of machine learning promises to provide unprecedented opportunities in the near future. AI can estimate the effectiveness of drugs and treatment regimens based on a billion case histories, independently discover new diseases, develop the most effective treatment regimens for a particular patient, and even, perhaps, develop new drugs and approaches. Skychain project can make this a reality by uniting all in a single ecosystem offering a huge array of medical data available for training neural networks.

More about Skychain Global can be found at https://skychain.global/

About Skychain Global: Skychain is an infrastructure blockchain project aimed to host, train and use artificial neural networks (ANNs) by market participants. In its initial phase, the project will be devoted only to medicine to help doctors and patients have accurate diagnoses using this system. Each member of the ecosystem will provide his/her resources and thus create a product that is ahead of any competitor’s. In its turn, the system will reward each participant with high benefits.

Contact:

https://skychain.global/

Gennady Popov

Gennadii.popov@gmail.com

Telegram: @gpopov

+ 7916-637-40-91

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Momentum – changing how we do Marketing

momentum icoMarketing is one of the most valuable tools available to any business. It interacts with every other element of a company and if done right, it can be the difference between success and failure. It can also bring loyalty to a business that it may not have otherwise.

It’s a tool that has been around forever, but one which may be about to be revolutionized by MobileBridge’s Momentum.

Momentum is a blockchain based marketing automation platform, which will allow companies to use the Momentum Token or launch their own crypto token to accurately engage with potential customers.

Momentum will reward customers in exchange for their brand loyalty, attention and brand advocacy. All the while the customer will still control the most important bit – their personal details.

Here are just a few of the ways that Momentum will change how marketing is done

  • It will target users based on specific data, including their whereabouts and previous actions.
  • Consumers will be rewarded with site and time specific incentives.
  • User journeys will be improved through excellent offers based on data which is provided by the potential customer There will be brand loyalty tokens
  • Analytics will give an insight into the correct amount a company should be investing in marketing

Momentum Tokens will be on sale to the public at the end of March (26th) and this presale will last for four weeks, or when the limit has been reached.

Total Token supply : 1,000,000,000
Tokens for sale during ICO : 500,000,000
Token price : €0.10 (~0.12 USD/CHF)

Purchase BONUSES:
Week 1–5% to 15% bonus dependant on volume and supply
Week 2–3% to 10% bonus dependant on volume and supply
Week 3 — up to 5% bonus dependant on volume and supply
Week 4 — No bonus

Take a look at the Momentum website here: https://momentumtoken.io/

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Skyllz aims to change how expertise is transferred

skyllz icoIn the future, traditional education won’t be where we will look when we want to improve our list of expertise, according to a new blockchain technology company called Skyllz.

It is a blockchain platform whose very business plan encapsulates a changing world for job hunters, who need to keep on top of the ever-changing market by constantly growing their skillset. It will allow users to transfer, search for and validate skills in their custom-made ecosystem.

Excellent reputation

Skyllz comes from the renowned team that brought you Workkola – a recruitment and job hunting solution that replaces CVs with metrics.

It is hoping to take advantage of the growing education technology industry with this new platform. It is estimated that the tech education industry will be worth a massive $94b by 2020.

Skyllz want to standardise and unify the validation of every skill, both educational and soft skills. It also plans on helping users of its platform transfer, purchase and track their skillsets.

Blockchain Technology

Blockchain technology will be used to monitor what is called a ‘proof-of skill’, which is a fully traceable account of a person’s reputation in regards to a certain type of expertise.
To use this new and innovative ecosystem, you will have to have a Skyllz Token (SKT).

SKTs will act as a mode of exchange and will allow for users to validate their skills on the platform.
Pre-sale of these tokens is due to happen in March, while regular sale will be open to the public between July and August. More information is available at https://skyllz.org/.

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Databroker DAO is changing how sensor data is bought and sold

databroker dao icoDatabroker DAO is marketing itself with the slogan ‘Making Cities Smarter’ and there is little doubt that the blockchain-based platform will live up to that promise.

It is the first marketplace of its kind to allow both the purchasing and selling of the ‘Internet of Things’ sensor data. Essentially, Databroker DAO is trying to make sensor data that wasn’t available in the past available for those who want to purchase it now.

This is great news for many industries, including those in the agricultural, educational and medical industries. This attempt to monetize sensor data is the brainchild of Matthew van Niekerk and Roderik van der Veer, who currently serve as CEO and CTO of the company.

The data

DataBroker DAO is connected to an estimated network with 9 billion sensors. This supplies their platform with an incredible amount of data by anyone’s measurement. Renowned technology website, TechBullion.com, estimate that this sensor data could be worth around $600 billion if it was utilised correctly.

DataBroker DAO are also partnering with several big sellers of IoT data in order to strengthen their platform. The likes of Yuktix, Senthus, Desidedatum, Iquadrar, Skylark and Technolog are already on board

A decentralized market for this kind of data has many advantages, such as the following;

  • An opportunity for return on investment for sensor owners
  • Encouragement for further investment in the technology
  • Products and services can be improved by the data on offer
  • An opportunity for enterprises that wouldn’t have such data to improve their offerings

DTX Token

The DTX token, which belongs to the DataBroker DAO platform, is the only means to buy and sell on the marketplace. There are 225 million DTX tokens that were issued by the company.

The token distribution structure for the coin is as follows

0.5% – Bounty campaign
5% – Team incentives
6.5% – Bonus for early investors
10% – Platform funds
30% – lock up
48% – token sale

The presale of the token starts on March 19th – the only payment accepted for DTX is Ethereum.
They will be issued at the rate of 6000 DTX per Ethereum with a 50% token bonus. There will be no sale for values less than 10 ETH.

The crowdsale starts on the 26th of March 2018 at 4pm CET and will end on the 23rd of April 2018. There, tokens will be sold at 4000 DTX per Ethereum with a special 10% bonus for first day investors.

You can visit the Databroker DAO website here: https://databrokerdao.com/

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EQUI aims to change the world of investment through Blockchain tech

EQUI ICO LOGOEQUI is an innovative and dynamic new blockchain technology which may change how venture capital investing will be done. The investment sector has been slow to latch onto blockchain technology, but that may all be about to change with EQUI.

Baroness Mone of Mayfair OBE and Doug Barrowman are the Co-Founders of EQUI, a company which hopes to help the world of investment progress past its outdated traditions.

EQUI Token

The EQUI token is the bridge between non-investment professionals and the world of investment finance. It allows cryptocurrency holders to trade, invest and make real world money.

It is built on the Ethereum platform and can be used to buy stakes in a range of prime investment opportunities.

EQUI Ecosystem

EQUI has a unique system which gives a piece of the pie to all token holders when a project becomes fully realised. This is beneficial as it gives extra opportunities for making money off the platform.
Users can browse the EQUI and pick which investment suits them best.

EQUI Token Presale

Presale opens on the 1st of March and ends on the 8th of the same month – the public ICO will start from there. There will be several bonus incentives for early investors. 25% bonuses will exist for those who buy during the presale, while there will be scaled bonuses over three other phases after that.

They are as follows.
Phase 1 – March 8th – 15h – 15% bonus
Phase 2 – March 15th – 22nd – 5% bonus
Phase 3 – March 22nd to 31st – no bonus.

The total supply will be 250 million at a price of $0.50.

Accepted payments during the presale include USD, GBP, EUR and Bitcoins.

During the public ICO, EQUI tokens can only be purchased using Bitcoins (BTC), Ethereum (ETH), Litecoins (LTC), and Ripple (XRP).

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Decentralisation against hackers: how the blockchain will help fight theft of confidential information

The blockchain is often seen as a technology that is capable of liberating many sectors from middlemen, decreasing the operating costs and improving transparency and security in the relations between the market participants. But would the technology of decentralised ledger help to overcome one of the greatest challenges of the modern world, the secure storage of personal data?

The year 2017 beat the records in leakage of personal data as a result of cyberattacks and vulnerabilities in the storage systems. According to Gemalto, a company that works in the field of cyber security, 1.9 billion records were compromised in the first half of 2017, more than during the whole year 2016 (1.37 billion). Approximately 10.4 million records leak to the Internet daily. According to the Russian company InfoWatch, the figure is much higher – 7.78 billion records in the first half of 2017.

One of the greatest thefts of last years was the hacker attack against Uber. In October 2016, the cyber criminals managed to steal the data of 50 million Uber users and 7 million Uber drivers. Names, email addresses, mobile phone numbers, driving permit numbers were stolen. According to some users, their accounts were hacked, and they received invoices for journeys they had never made. Back then, the media reported that Uber had to pay $100,000 to a hacker in order to retrieve the personal data of its users.

Every minute, gigabytes of information are generated in the world. The data volume is growing with such a tremendous pace that the companies outsource the storage of information to other services increasingly often. The most popular of these services are cloud storages. Amazon, Microsoft, IBM and Google became leaders in this field, controlling 60% of the whole cloud storage market (Infrastructure-as-a-Service, IaaS). The cloud storage is the quickest growing segment of all the cloud services. In 2017, the cloud market storage, according to preliminary assessments, grew 36.8% to reach $34.6 billion, and by 2020 it will reach $71.6 billion. But how secure are those services?

One of the most striking examples of vulnerability of existing data storage systems is the leakage of celebrity photos from the iCloud service in 2014. Back then, the hacker stole naked photos of Hollywood celebrities including Jennifer Lawrence (the lead actress of the film Hunger Games), Ariana Grande (actress and singer), Kirsten Dunst (actress), Selena Gomez and Avril Lavigne (singers) – in total, the list included more than a hundred names – and uploaded these photos to the Internet.

The fundamental vulnerability of the existing data storage systems is their centralisation. Whether on private servers or at the cloud storage from market leaders, the information is still concentrated in one place, which increases the probability of leakage and theft as a result of targeted hacker attacks or administrator’s mistakes when regulating the access to the cloud storage area.

“Commercial and state services process the ever growing quantity of data electronically, and such data is very liquid,” stated Sergei Khairuk, the analyst of the InfoWatch Group of Companies when presenting a report about the data leakages in 2017. – “The high-tech sector is very much subject to information leakages, as well as the financial sphere. These fields enjoy the special interest of criminals who deliberately compromised the majority of data pertaining to these sectors. And these are the very spheres that serve as drivers of the digital economy so its development makes it necessary to give a special attention to the questions of regulation and information security of the processes of digital transformation.”

A possible answer to the challenge can be given by the decentralised data storage platforms. Over the last years, a number of large-scale projects emerged that develop such services – Filecoin, Storj, Sia and others. Some projects are oriented towards the storage of files sent by common users, others target businesses. The increased market demand demonstrates that such platforms are needed: the Filecoin project became one of the largest crowdsales of 2017, raising more than $257 million during the initial coin offering. However, so far no platform could win a major share of the market.

When launching a decentralized storage, a significant problem is the architecture of such a solution, explains Artem Koltsov, the founder of the Casper API, a blockchain data storage for decentralised applications. He believes that a shortcoming of most of such projects is a tendency to create one’s own blockchain, as in cases of Sia and Storj, or develop a platform based on an already existing blockchain (the case of Swarm), whereas in the future the decentralised applications will be based on different blockchain ecosystems. That is why, when designing the future decentralized repository, the Casper team decided, instead of trying to create and popularise their own blockchain, to develop a universal solution that can be deployed on any blockchain, be it the Ethereum ecosystem popular among the developers or its possible future competitors such as NEO, Qtum or Lisk.

The main advantage of decentralized storage is the ability to distribute data in an encrypted and fragmented manner between random community participants. Thus, data owners can withstand targeted hacker attacks, as cybercriminals, even if they find a breach in the security system, are unlikely to have access to the necessary information in full, and the encryption will transform their booty into a meaningless set of codes.
Another advantage of decentralised storage that should be taken into account is the reduction of data storage expenses. While the cost of storage of 50 terabytes of information with the largest player of the cloud service market, Amazon, amounts to $16,500 ($0.33 for 1 gigabyte), it is many times cheaper with decentralised storages. For instance, in the case of Casper, the storage of 50 terabytes will cost the user approximately $5,445.
Blockchain developers are positive that, similarly to the case of banking institutions, the blockchain may free the market of unnecessary middlemen.

“I see huge parallels between existing cloud storage infrastructure and existing financial infrastructure,” declared Zach Herbert, one of the authors of the Sia project. “Both rely on trusted third parties. Both could be more efficient and more affordable. Both will be replaced with blockchains.”
Koltsov adds that the blockchain-based applications (DApp) cannot be considered as quite decentralised without a decentralised storage.

“The decentralisation of the information storage market will not only help to fight leaks,” he believes. “Decentralised storages will help DApps to become truly independent from corporations and state authorities. If we want to see a rapid development of decentralised applications, it is vital to solve the issue of the decentralized data storage.”

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